expository writing

How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy

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How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy
Modern consumer lifestyles are causing a tremendous worldwide waste problem. Having overfilled local landfill capacities, many first world nations are now exporting their waste to lesser develop countries. These actions have a disturbing impact on Mother Nature as well as the cultures throughout the globe.
With the rapid industrialization, the world has seen the development of many items like things that generate heat and electricity. Heat has often treated as a waste making an individual wonder if this massive heat being generated can be transmute into a source of electric power.

Waste-to-Energy (WtE) or Energy-from-Waste (EfW) is the process of generating electricity or heat power from the incineration of waste. It is a form of energy recovery and most of it produces electricity and heat through combustion.

In a Country Research Recovery Facility in New York, this power plant burn 30, 000 tons of garbage a day and lights up the whole city of Big Apple. Bulks of waste are being collected in different areas in New York.

In the facility, heaps of garbage is dump in a big drying chamber in order to become dehydrated since wet garbage can’t generate electricity. This drying compartment is like a nightmare vision of the future and sorting all the condemned garbage by a suitably horrifying machine called the claw. Two of these gargantuan 22 ton grabbers speed up the drying process by turning and airing trashes until its ready to burn. These giant airing cover holds up 17, 000 loads of waste are divided into three sections and each has a size of a basketball court.

Nevertheless, one section is taking new wet garbage and the other two will continue drying the waste for seven days then the conveyor belts will feed the three incinerators for waste destruction.

Three blazing inferno which reach up to 222 degrees Fahrenheit burn as much as 22, 000 pounds of dry garbage in an hour. While ash tumbles down through a series of rollers to an extraction system were any metal are being remove by magnets, the inferno heats up the 165 tons boiler like a giant tea kettle.

Extracted water runs through an immense maze of pipe works were heat from the furnace turns into 100 steams per hour. The high pressure steam is being pipe up to a colossal turbine room above the boiler. Nonetheless, each 235 megawatts turbine that generates power is design like a double-deck bus. The steam spins the turbines were convert their movement into electricity to light up the entire New York.

However, this kind of method is associated with one major problem. Pollutants will have the potential to enter in our atmosphere with the massive flue gases from the boiler. These noxious wastes are considered hazardous and in the 1980’s were reported to cause an environmental damage by turning rain into an acid rain. They stated that incinerators may emit fine particulate, heavy metals, trace dioxins, acid gas and the like.

Critics argue that incinerators may cause desolation on valuable resources and furthermore may reduce incentives for recycling. The question, nevertheless, is a wide matter as countries in Europe recycling the most (70%) also incinerate their residual waste to avoid land filling.

Hence, in order to diminish this predicament, modern industries created devices like fabric filters, reactors and catalysts to capture other regulated pollutants.

By passing the smoke through these devices, any acids that reside the smoke are neutralized and filtered which averts the acid from reaching the atmosphere and hurting the environment.

According to the New York Times, recent incineration plants are so clean that “many times more dioxin is now at released from home fireplaces and backyard barbecues than from incineration.” Also according to the German Environmental Ministry, “because of stringent regulations, waste incineration plants are no longer significant in terms of emission of dioxins, dust and heavy metals.”


How to make assorted chocolates

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               Ever since chocolate was discovered, people have had a craving for it. This desire led them to create more flavors that will further add savory taste to their favorite chocolate. And today’s luxury chocolate takes people’s addiction to a whole new level, especially among children. There were already many tasteful twists generated to manufacture class chocolates that quench the taste buds of the people. And high technology is needed in order to produce these appetizing sweets.

                To create butter cream chocolate, first, add marshmallow cream, lots of pure butter, sugar and syrup. Mix it with water, vanilla and special yeast enzyme that completes the recipe. This enzyme will enhance the creaminess. Tuck the butter cream between ridge rollers which shape the creamy columns. A wire slices them into bite size nuggets. Tap the butter creams to uniform height. Chocolates lose up through the slides of the conveyer to coat the bottom of the creams. Then it’s on to a cold surface to solidify. Next, the creams travel through two curtains of chocolates while being coated at the bottoms again.  Finally, a trip to a twenty four and a half foot long cooling tunnel hardens the chocolates. Then the worker uses his or her hand to add a garnish to the chocolate. And as you see those finish products, you cannot deny that you want to ingest those luscious treats.

                If you want to have another flavor of the chocolate, cherry chocolates for example, first, you just load the cherries or the other flavors into a revolving pen. Add sugar crystals and as the cherries roll around, they get an even coating. Along with the sugar, these cherries have been coated with a special enzyme that will turn the sugar to liquid over the next ten days for juicier cherry taste. The enzyme effect is why the cherries get an extra coating of chocolate. It creates a solid shell that contains the sugary liquid. Again, the worker uses his or her hand for the final touch of the chocolate. And they are ready for those cherry-picking shopaholics. You can do this procedure again with the other flavors that you want.

                In packaging the chocolates, each box of chocolate contains eighteen to twenty different varieties. Since the workers make three to four flavours a day, it can take up a week to produce one of the luxurious assortments.

                For sure, people would eat up greedily in no time. For the costumers, seeing chocolates are like feast in their eyes. Surely they don’t want to miss to endure one of the most luxurious desire, chocolates.



By Dianne Ysabel Deoso, Jemmarie Lanson and Princess Faith Lamsin



Sweet addictive ring of Happiness: How it’s Made

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Doughnuts used to be called oily cakes because they were deep-fried in pork fat. when dutch pilgrim first brought them to America they were ball-shaped but then someone found that removing a nut of dough from the centre help them cook far more evenly, and alas! The sweet-mother-of-mercy doughnut was born.

In the world of Doughnuts there are two basic types; yeast Doughnuts, and cake Doughnuts

The butter for cake doughnuts drops from the mixer right into boiling vegetable oil, the nozzle shape the dough as it passes, the doughnuts fry for about a minute and a half then a conveyer carries them out from the vat to cool.

Yeast doughnuts require more time to make, a highspeed mixer works the yeast dough, then workers pull them off from the machine into bins. From there it goes into a hopper that extrudes the dough as a sheet, then it’s on to another conveyer belt where a series of rollers flatten the dough sheet to just 3 quarters of an inch thick.

The sheet passes into a shower of cinnamon then hits a rotating cylinder that rolls it into a log. A small cylinder sprinkles the dough with water, this keeps it sticky enough to hold its shape while going into another flattening roller. A dusting of corn starch keeps the dough from sticking to the blade that cuts it into pieces.

A retractable arm drops the blocks of though four a time unto wire meshed trays. then, it’s off into the proofer, a machine much like a large bread box in which heat and humidity help the yeast dough to rise, this leavening process takes about twenty minutes, during which time the tray is over 300 of them go up & down, and then out in the fryer.

A gate slows the doughnut down just before the drop so they slide in without splashing hot oil, Gas burners heat the oil at a constant boil, anything less and the doughnuts would come out partly raw, halfway through, they get a flip so that they’ll cook evenly throughout.

After two minutes the doughnuts leave the fryer and move through a curtain of sweet glaze. A strong air current blows off the excess, and these fried cakes are ready to eat, they gradually cool as they spiral through the production area on the way to their packaging.

-Jules Millanar & Jayson Mark Pido

How It’s Made: Chocolate Coins

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by: Allibeth Domingo, Jonah Rose Dublas and Kirsten Rose Concon

Chocolate coins have been a symbolic treat in some parts of the world. It is one of the treats that are stuffed in a Christmas stocking during the feast of St. Nicolas. While for Jews, it is given to the Jewish children in celebration of the Hanukkah.

But have you ever wondered how it is made?

It all starts with 4 ½-kilogram bars of pure chocolate. The worker will then transfer these bars to a double boiler machine to melt it. The machine now has 2 ¾ tons of liquid chocolate that will be pumped through a long pipe with different cooling zones. The chocolate thickens through a process called tempering in which chocolate thickens but not to the extent that it will solidify. Tempering the chocolate breaks down the crystals in order to achieve the right taste and texture. After that, the thick chocolate will then be flowed under a broad blade through a conveyor. The blade spreads the chocolate more evenly and levels the thickness that will create a long sheet of chocolate. The chocolate starts to harden. To continue the process, it passes through a refrigeration tunnel in which it turns into a soft solid. Meanwhile, the long, tubular die which functions like a cookie cutter is prepared. As the die punches through the chocolate, the chocolate blanks accumulate on the tubes. The leftover is then brought to a bin. It will be brought back to the boiler machine to melt it so not a single chocolate will be put to waste.

The chocolate blanks are now ready to be printed. In order to do this, the chocolates will be wrapped with gold foil first. Next, the pattern is embossed on the chocolate and foil simultaneously. It is done by establishing even tensions on the sheets of gold foil through rollers. Then, the forked arm of the machine will move the chocolate blanks between the foil sheets. It wraps and cuts the chocolate blanks. Next, the forked arm transfers the chocolate blanks to a die press that impresses the design onto the chocolate blanks and foil. Though the chocolate hardens, it is still soft enough to receive the image. As for the leftover foils, it won’t be put to waste. Instead, it will be recycled. After the stamping of the design, it is brought to a bin through another conveyor. Finally, the chocolate coins end its journey by packing it in a traditional mesh bag.

Though the edible coins cannot be used for purchasing purposes, it can buy smiles from the kids and kids-at-heart which is the true jackpot. 

Quick and easy tuna sandwich spread recipe

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                 Weary of waiting for a rotten meat to cook for a sparingly long time?  Exhausted of slacking over a scorching stove? Already impatient of being worried, if your visitors would be fond of whatever meal you prepare and cook? Well, if so, then this tuna sandwich spread is in favor of you. It is unmistakably effortless to cook and it’s evidently guaranteed that it will only cost a very cheap expenditure, you won’t have any uncertainties. Moreover, it’s not only appetizing, it also has a great measure of calcium which makes it vigorous and you couldn’t even expect that it has a lot of nutrients within it.  With this very easy recipe, you won’t need to waste your precious kitchen work for this preparation. And with all the priorities you have, you need not to have an extra weigh down. Just make an abrupt yet delicious sandwich.

                The first thing you have to remember if you’re planning to make a mouth-watering tuna sandwich spread you have to put in order the following ingredients:  4 tablespoons of diced celery, 6 to 7 tablespoons of mayonnaise, 2 to 3 tablespoons of mustard, 1/2 medium-sized onion, 1 tablespoon of fresh parsley, 1/4 teaspoons of ground cayenne pepper, lettuce, butter, salt and pepper to add flavor and a loaf bread. Also, you may use utensils to make your tuna spread a much easier task, such as a can opener and a mixing bowl. Subsequent to that, open the canned tuna, then drain any sort of liquid substance inside may it be oil or water then put carefully into the mixing bowl. However, you have to inculcate that if you are using a chunk tuna it’s often seen as a dry texture. You may need to use an extra ingredient that has plenty of moisture, such as mayonnaise. Furthermore, you also have to avoid adding water just to moisten your tuna salad. If you prefer using oily tuna, don’t wash it; allow the oil to form part of the moisture in the loaf. After that, you need to chop the onions and parsley finely. At that time, add the celery, mayonnaise, mustard, onion, parsley and cayenne pepper to the mixing bowl and muddle up each one of the ingredients.

               Also, season the pepper and salt to taste. Before I finish, put the lettuce on one of the bread slices, then spread the tuna spread mixture evenly on top. Now, that you have your own tuna sandwich spread, this may be eaten alone or accompanied by hot chips or other favorite side. It’s up to you if you prefer your tuna sand which spread served chilled or even toasted bread.

            On the other hand, here are loads of ways that you can experiment and enmesh ingredients it is because there are never-ending opportunities to make your sandwiches different and matchless. Sandwiches specifically are more likely convenient, sweat-free dinners that may satisfy almost anyone. A sandwich is whatever you make of it. Although recipes are good guides,  your own tang preferences is also a significant lead.



Camille Tapec, Eden Bombeo, Alina Santos

Burong Santol

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By Jordan Amadora, Jojie E. Campugan, Jayboy M. Sartorio

We, Filipinos have always had a taste for sour and tangy. We always love as the distinct taste of the delicacy bursts as it reaches at the tip of the tongue like “burong santol”. But why these kinds of wild mangosteen are tangier than the ordinary ones? Well, here is the answer with that question.

First, prepare the ingredients needed in making burong santol: santol or wild mangosteen, two cups of water and half cup of salt. Wash the wild mangosteen thoroughly in running tap water and then peel each wild mangosteen. After peeling, separate the seeds and flesh, and slice up the flesh into any size you want that you’ll feel comfortable with. In a jar, arrange the flesh you had just cut into pieces and you may or may not include the seeds depending on your desire.

Meanwhile, prepare the brine solution by boiling two cups of water and half cup of rock salt for five minutes, set it aside and let it cool. Pour the brine solution into the jar just enough that the wild mangosteen will be submerge with the brine solution, cover it loosely and let it ferment for few days. The salty taste of the brine solution will replace the liquid in the wild mangosteen flesh and seeds that make it tangier. After three days, tighten the cover and place the jar in the refrigerator. That’s it! Your burong santol is now ready to serve.

These are just easy steps; even an elementary student could follow the process. You wouldn’t have to spend your money on readymade burong santol sold commercially, instead you may spend it on another thing you needed most and you would not worry about the safety of the food you are eating.

How to be a Great Roommate

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by: Inah Marie Santos & Jocel Degala

How to be a Great Roommate


            Living with siblings is not really bad. You’ve got other people to watch your back, get to mischief together and live our life to the fullest. Whenever you’ve got problems, they help by understanding you and hope that whatever you do may be for the best but when you have siblings you should learn to share everything, literally. So if you’re sharing a room with your siblings it won’t be hard to adjust but if you’re having a problem sharing a room at the dormitory or in your boarding house, let me share you something that will make your college days easier.   Here it is;

First, you’ve got to be clear from the beginning. Tell them that you’re a neat freak. You’re uncomfortable sleeping with the lights on and that you need ten minutes after you wake up to start talking. Tell them all your quirks and preferences. You may not expect them to pick it up right away and understand it but at least you prevented a problem before it became one. 

Second, address things when they are still small/little. Does your room mate always forgets her stuff in the shower and borrows yours instead? Does she always borrow your clothes before you can even wash them? Telling them about these things that bugs you while they are still small will help them be aware of your anxieties and addressing them while it’s still small will be easier before it gets bigger.

Third, you should respect each other’s stuff. This may seem simple but this is the most common reason why roommates experience conflicts. Don’t you think she will mind if you borrow her cardigan, for all you know you may be crossing a very uncrossable line. Don’t borrow, use or take anything before asking a permission first.

Fourth, be friendly, without expecting to be best friends. I mean it would be great to be best friends with them but don’t go into relationships with them and expect that you’re gonna’ be best of friends while you’re at school. It would be great but expecting will put you both in trouble.  You could be friendly with them but also make sure you have your own social circles.


And lastly, if nothing else happens, follow the Golden Rule. Treat your roommate like you’d like to be treated. No matter what your relationship is at the end of the year, you can take comfort knowing you acted like an adult and treated your roommate with respect.

There are a lot of do’s and don’ts if you’re living with another person, but that is what a roommate agreement is for.  Respect is ultimately what it comes down to. To be a good roommate you need to have the common decency to respect the person you’re living with. Even if you don’t get along, treating them like a human being with a life of their own is the least you can do. You don’t have to be best friends that hang out every day, but you also don’t have to be bitter enemies. So take the initiative and be the good roommate.