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What Made Our Walls Durable: hollow blocks

A concrete block is primarily used as building material in the constructions of walls. It is also a new innovative technology in the building infrastructure. These concrete hollow blocks are a better substitute to work faster to build a structure with long lasting value. This will give a different look and to less your energy and making a eco friendly atmosphere in the building.
Concrete hollow blocks is a mixture of powdered Portland cement, water, sand and gravel. The production of concrete blocks consists of four basic processes. These are proportioning, mixing, compacting, curing, and drying.
Proportioning refers to the determination of suitable amounts of raw materials needed to produce concrete of desired quality under given conditions of mixing, placing and curing is known as proportioning. Mixing refers to the objective of thorough mixing of aggregates, cement and water is to ensure that the cement-water paste completely covers the surface of the aggregates. All the raw materials including water are collected in a concrete mixer, which is rotated for about 1 ½ minutes. The prepared mix is discharged from the mixer and consumed within 30 minutes. Compacting refers to the purpose of filling all air pockets with concrete as a whole without movement of free water through the concrete. Curing refers to the removing of the concrete from the mould and protected until they are sufficiently hardened to permit handling without damage. Drying refers to the dry out gradually of the blocks in shade so that the initial drying shrinkage of the blocks is completed before they are used in the construction work.
So, here are the step by step guides on how to make concrete hollow blocks.
First, to make a concrete blocks, you will need to set up concrete moulds to make your blocks in a particular shape. You will need water for a cement to form a hardened paste and it is also used to lubricate the aggregates to form a plastic and workable mass. Then use concrete mixer to mix clean sand with cement. Add crashed limestone or gravel to the mixer and slowly add water. Stir it. Pour the concrete into the mould carefully. Level the top with the trowel. Then remove it from the mould by pressing it down as you are pulling up on the mould. Generally a period of 7 to 15 days of drying will bring the blocks to the desired degree of dryness to complete their initial shrinkage. After this, the blocks are ready for use in construction work.
Using of concrete blocks provides facility for concealing electrical conduit, water and sewer pipes wherever so desired and requires less plastering. It is also durable, fire resistance and partial resistance to sound. It has an attractive appearance, and adaptable to any style of architecture.
Concrete blocks is a human technology that suites for our lifestyle in this advance world where everything is posible.

Demegillo,honey may

How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy

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How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy
Modern consumer lifestyles are causing a tremendous worldwide waste problem. Having overfilled local landfill capacities, many first world nations are now exporting their waste to lesser develop countries. These actions have a disturbing impact on Mother Nature as well as the cultures throughout the globe.
With the rapid industrialization, the world has seen the development of many items like things that generate heat and electricity. Heat has often treated as a waste making an individual wonder if this massive heat being generated can be transmute into a source of electric power.

Waste-to-Energy (WtE) or Energy-from-Waste (EfW) is the process of generating electricity or heat power from the incineration of waste. It is a form of energy recovery and most of it produces electricity and heat through combustion.

In a Country Research Recovery Facility in New York, this power plant burn 30, 000 tons of garbage a day and lights up the whole city of Big Apple. Bulks of waste are being collected in different areas in New York.

In the facility, heaps of garbage is dump in a big drying chamber in order to become dehydrated since wet garbage can’t generate electricity. This drying compartment is like a nightmare vision of the future and sorting all the condemned garbage by a suitably horrifying machine called the claw. Two of these gargantuan 22 ton grabbers speed up the drying process by turning and airing trashes until its ready to burn. These giant airing cover holds up 17, 000 loads of waste are divided into three sections and each has a size of a basketball court.

Nevertheless, one section is taking new wet garbage and the other two will continue drying the waste for seven days then the conveyor belts will feed the three incinerators for waste destruction.

Three blazing inferno which reach up to 222 degrees Fahrenheit burn as much as 22, 000 pounds of dry garbage in an hour. While ash tumbles down through a series of rollers to an extraction system were any metal are being remove by magnets, the inferno heats up the 165 tons boiler like a giant tea kettle.

Extracted water runs through an immense maze of pipe works were heat from the furnace turns into 100 steams per hour. The high pressure steam is being pipe up to a colossal turbine room above the boiler. Nonetheless, each 235 megawatts turbine that generates power is design like a double-deck bus. The steam spins the turbines were convert their movement into electricity to light up the entire New York.

However, this kind of method is associated with one major problem. Pollutants will have the potential to enter in our atmosphere with the massive flue gases from the boiler. These noxious wastes are considered hazardous and in the 1980’s were reported to cause an environmental damage by turning rain into an acid rain. They stated that incinerators may emit fine particulate, heavy metals, trace dioxins, acid gas and the like.

Critics argue that incinerators may cause desolation on valuable resources and furthermore may reduce incentives for recycling. The question, nevertheless, is a wide matter as countries in Europe recycling the most (70%) also incinerate their residual waste to avoid land filling.

Hence, in order to diminish this predicament, modern industries created devices like fabric filters, reactors and catalysts to capture other regulated pollutants.

By passing the smoke through these devices, any acids that reside the smoke are neutralized and filtered which averts the acid from reaching the atmosphere and hurting the environment.

According to the New York Times, recent incineration plants are so clean that “many times more dioxin is now at released from home fireplaces and backyard barbecues than from incineration.” Also according to the German Environmental Ministry, “because of stringent regulations, waste incineration plants are no longer significant in terms of emission of dioxins, dust and heavy metals.”


How to let go and move on

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            Many of us experience misfortunes in life just like, failing in an examination; unable to get a job, can’t provide families needs even  those the basic one’s but the most heart breaking experience is when the person you love the most leaves you without explaining why.

            Numerous people who encounter this kind of experience failed to overcome the intense emotion that they feel so they began to lose their hopes and tend to ruin their lives completely. By starting not to attend in class, doing dirty and immoral things, taking alcoholic beverages and addictive drugs and to the extent that some of them try to end their lives. Because of these unavoidable events, experts came up with ideas that can lessen and overcome the depression one may feel. 

            Holding on is like believing that there is only past; letting go and moving on is knowing that there a is bright future ahead within your heart (Paulo Coelho). Thus it is important to know something when it already reached its end. It doesn’t matter what you called this kind of experience, what matters is to leave in the past those moments in the life that are over.

            First, one should accept the truth and be thankful be thankful of the experience that made you laugh, made you cry because this things helped you grow and accepting the things that you have and the possibilities that lies ahead. It is all about finding your inner strength and realizing that every experience has its value.

            Second, distance yourself for a while, sometimes you need to take a break and explore new things for a while in order to gain clarity on a situation. This will help you started and see things with new eyes, because returning from where you started is far different from leaving.

            Next, focus only on what can be changed, understanding that everything in life is not perfectly meant for each other. Focus on the things that you can do and don’t waste your energy on the things that you cannot be changed.

            Then, claim ownership and full control of your life, you are the one responsible in making who you wanted to be. Blamed everything that you wanted to like, your parents, educational system, the government and etc., but never blame yourself. If you want to move on and let go within your life, you are the only person who can make it happen.

            Followed by, focusing inward. It is good to create difference in this world and it is also good to help other person but you have to start within yourself. Review your potentials, lifestyle and the things that make you alive, and then nurture these things to make positive adjustments in your life.

            After that, you should change some people around you, some people are just there to strengthen you, and they are supposed to be in your memory not your destiny. Well now it’s already time to join local meet- ups, attend conference and other social activities. It was very important because it develops your happiness and potentials.

            In addition you have to take chance, it means that you have to accept the challenge that may come in to your life, there is reason for it; it is meant to test your courage and willingness to make change and take a chance for something new.

            Lastly, focus on today, life moves only in one direction- forward. Negative experience in the past will not predict your future. Figure out your next positive step no matter how small and difficult it is. Just keep on moving forward it’s the only thing you can do.

            Moving on is not an easy task to do, it is a process that deals with time, and self determination. Therefore for those people experiencing this kind of heart- breaking moments they should follow the steps presented above for the betterment of one’s self. Past is past, life should must be learn backward and must look forward. Let go of the things that made you cry and think of things that makes you smile. 

by: Tabingo, John Froy Mico Grey Pugaja and Carlito Vicente

New way of cooking Adobo

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By: Bandilla, Ivy Rose and Torrecampo, Rhea Mae

Filipinos are definitely food lover. They love to eat and taste food that will surely satisfy their appetite. They want to innovate, discover and create delicacies that will surely capture each heart. And Adobo is one of their signature dishes.

Here’s how to do it.

First and foremost, Filipinos are fund of discovering, eating and cooking as well that is why preparing adobo is actually common for them. So first, prepare all the ingredients needed (This is other way of cooking this dish). You may use either pork, chicken or a combination of it for doing this dish (cut into 1 ½ cubes for pork), 1 ½ tablespoon finely minced garlic, ½ to ¾ teaspoon ground black pepper, seasoning, soy sauce and vinegar and bay leaf.

Secondly, using a big pot, put the meat (pork or chicken), add vinegar and soy sauce as well as the bay leaf and add 2 cups of water and simmer for about 20 minutes or more add water if desired until the meat becomes tender and juicy.

Thirdly, after the meat is cooked, remove the sauce and set aside. Then, fry pork with the same pot used until it turns brown (if you’re not using pork, add some oil). When the pork turns brown, remove it from the pot (you may place it in a bowl together with its sauce).

Fourthly, with the same pot used, sauté garlic until it becomes brown (adding garlic towards the end part of cooking enhances its true flavor) after which, put the separated pork and sauce inside the pot and add seasoning according to your taste and simmer for about 3-5 minutes. (You may add boiled eggs or chicken liver while it simmers).

And lastly, serve it with hot rice.

Filipino’s passion for foods can be traced back from their former colonial masters which are the Spaniards. That is why even the names of some Filipino dishes are influenced by Spanish origin such as menudo, sisig, caldereta, etc. And that’s it! A new way of cooking Adobo, but its taste will always be marked as a Filipino.


How to make assorted chocolates

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               Ever since chocolate was discovered, people have had a craving for it. This desire led them to create more flavors that will further add savory taste to their favorite chocolate. And today’s luxury chocolate takes people’s addiction to a whole new level, especially among children. There were already many tasteful twists generated to manufacture class chocolates that quench the taste buds of the people. And high technology is needed in order to produce these appetizing sweets.

                To create butter cream chocolate, first, add marshmallow cream, lots of pure butter, sugar and syrup. Mix it with water, vanilla and special yeast enzyme that completes the recipe. This enzyme will enhance the creaminess. Tuck the butter cream between ridge rollers which shape the creamy columns. A wire slices them into bite size nuggets. Tap the butter creams to uniform height. Chocolates lose up through the slides of the conveyer to coat the bottom of the creams. Then it’s on to a cold surface to solidify. Next, the creams travel through two curtains of chocolates while being coated at the bottoms again.  Finally, a trip to a twenty four and a half foot long cooling tunnel hardens the chocolates. Then the worker uses his or her hand to add a garnish to the chocolate. And as you see those finish products, you cannot deny that you want to ingest those luscious treats.

                If you want to have another flavor of the chocolate, cherry chocolates for example, first, you just load the cherries or the other flavors into a revolving pen. Add sugar crystals and as the cherries roll around, they get an even coating. Along with the sugar, these cherries have been coated with a special enzyme that will turn the sugar to liquid over the next ten days for juicier cherry taste. The enzyme effect is why the cherries get an extra coating of chocolate. It creates a solid shell that contains the sugary liquid. Again, the worker uses his or her hand for the final touch of the chocolate. And they are ready for those cherry-picking shopaholics. You can do this procedure again with the other flavors that you want.

                In packaging the chocolates, each box of chocolate contains eighteen to twenty different varieties. Since the workers make three to four flavours a day, it can take up a week to produce one of the luxurious assortments.

                For sure, people would eat up greedily in no time. For the costumers, seeing chocolates are like feast in their eyes. Surely they don’t want to miss to endure one of the most luxurious desire, chocolates.



By Dianne Ysabel Deoso, Jemmarie Lanson and Princess Faith Lamsin



Cupcake Corner

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                    A sweet person loves to eat sweets and I think I’m guilty about It. I knew my personality very well, especially on the side of being a sugar cane lady.

                    I got so chubby when I started cooking and baking some recipes on my own five years back then. Do you know what? For me foods taste like heaven and it is so freaking yummier when you know you did it all by yourself.

                    One of my favorite recipes that I made is my very own version of cupcake named “the 14th flower”. I admit it’s kind of O.A but forget about the name because I’ll be giving you now the step by step process of how to make my cupcake that would make you forget your name.

                     Before that, let me give you some idea why I chose to bake cupcakes while there are so many pastries out there. Cupcakes are easy to do, it is cheaper, do not consume too much time and you can invent or create something out of it, particularly on the designs and the color of the frosting.

                     First, wash your hands and use an apron to avoid stains. Prepare the electric mixer and make it sure it is very clean. Put the 8oz. butter and let it be beaten until fluffy .  Add the 360g. Granulated sugar and gradually pour the mixture of 250g. Cake flour, 130g. All purpose, 5g. Salt and 15g. Baking powder. Next, pour the 8oz. milk with the 5ml. vanilla. Add the 4 eggs one at a time.

                     After it was mixed very well pour it into a molder and bake on 180’C for 20minutes.

                    While waiting for the cupcake, let’s do the frosting. On the mixer beat the butter until fluffy. Add the 350g. Powdered sugar with the 150g. Cocoa powder.  Pour the ½ tsp vanilla and 4tbsp milk. Next, add the 200g. Dark chocolate and last but not the least, 2tbps of my secret ingredient.

                    The cupcake is now ready as well as the frosting so let’s put the frosting on top of it and sprinkle some sprinkles or marshmallows.

                     Well, it is very easy to do yet tastes very good and I bet you on that.

                      So, do you have any recipes there that you made your own that would beat mine? Let’s see because i’m challenging you. 


By: Samson Tuanadatu, Jenny kaye Aquino and Nicolsia Ghay Tan


Sweet addictive ring of Happiness: How it’s Made

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Doughnuts used to be called oily cakes because they were deep-fried in pork fat. when dutch pilgrim first brought them to America they were ball-shaped but then someone found that removing a nut of dough from the centre help them cook far more evenly, and alas! The sweet-mother-of-mercy doughnut was born.

In the world of Doughnuts there are two basic types; yeast Doughnuts, and cake Doughnuts

The butter for cake doughnuts drops from the mixer right into boiling vegetable oil, the nozzle shape the dough as it passes, the doughnuts fry for about a minute and a half then a conveyer carries them out from the vat to cool.

Yeast doughnuts require more time to make, a highspeed mixer works the yeast dough, then workers pull them off from the machine into bins. From there it goes into a hopper that extrudes the dough as a sheet, then it’s on to another conveyer belt where a series of rollers flatten the dough sheet to just 3 quarters of an inch thick.

The sheet passes into a shower of cinnamon then hits a rotating cylinder that rolls it into a log. A small cylinder sprinkles the dough with water, this keeps it sticky enough to hold its shape while going into another flattening roller. A dusting of corn starch keeps the dough from sticking to the blade that cuts it into pieces.

A retractable arm drops the blocks of though four a time unto wire meshed trays. then, it’s off into the proofer, a machine much like a large bread box in which heat and humidity help the yeast dough to rise, this leavening process takes about twenty minutes, during which time the tray is over 300 of them go up & down, and then out in the fryer.

A gate slows the doughnut down just before the drop so they slide in without splashing hot oil, Gas burners heat the oil at a constant boil, anything less and the doughnuts would come out partly raw, halfway through, they get a flip so that they’ll cook evenly throughout.

After two minutes the doughnuts leave the fryer and move through a curtain of sweet glaze. A strong air current blows off the excess, and these fried cakes are ready to eat, they gradually cool as they spiral through the production area on the way to their packaging.

-Jules Millanar & Jayson Mark Pido

How It’s Made: Chocolate Coins

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by: Allibeth Domingo, Jonah Rose Dublas and Kirsten Rose Concon

Chocolate coins have been a symbolic treat in some parts of the world. It is one of the treats that are stuffed in a Christmas stocking during the feast of St. Nicolas. While for Jews, it is given to the Jewish children in celebration of the Hanukkah.

But have you ever wondered how it is made?

It all starts with 4 ½-kilogram bars of pure chocolate. The worker will then transfer these bars to a double boiler machine to melt it. The machine now has 2 ¾ tons of liquid chocolate that will be pumped through a long pipe with different cooling zones. The chocolate thickens through a process called tempering in which chocolate thickens but not to the extent that it will solidify. Tempering the chocolate breaks down the crystals in order to achieve the right taste and texture. After that, the thick chocolate will then be flowed under a broad blade through a conveyor. The blade spreads the chocolate more evenly and levels the thickness that will create a long sheet of chocolate. The chocolate starts to harden. To continue the process, it passes through a refrigeration tunnel in which it turns into a soft solid. Meanwhile, the long, tubular die which functions like a cookie cutter is prepared. As the die punches through the chocolate, the chocolate blanks accumulate on the tubes. The leftover is then brought to a bin. It will be brought back to the boiler machine to melt it so not a single chocolate will be put to waste.

The chocolate blanks are now ready to be printed. In order to do this, the chocolates will be wrapped with gold foil first. Next, the pattern is embossed on the chocolate and foil simultaneously. It is done by establishing even tensions on the sheets of gold foil through rollers. Then, the forked arm of the machine will move the chocolate blanks between the foil sheets. It wraps and cuts the chocolate blanks. Next, the forked arm transfers the chocolate blanks to a die press that impresses the design onto the chocolate blanks and foil. Though the chocolate hardens, it is still soft enough to receive the image. As for the leftover foils, it won’t be put to waste. Instead, it will be recycled. After the stamping of the design, it is brought to a bin through another conveyor. Finally, the chocolate coins end its journey by packing it in a traditional mesh bag.

Though the edible coins cannot be used for purchasing purposes, it can buy smiles from the kids and kids-at-heart which is the true jackpot. 

Quick and easy tuna sandwich spread recipe

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                 Weary of waiting for a rotten meat to cook for a sparingly long time?  Exhausted of slacking over a scorching stove? Already impatient of being worried, if your visitors would be fond of whatever meal you prepare and cook? Well, if so, then this tuna sandwich spread is in favor of you. It is unmistakably effortless to cook and it’s evidently guaranteed that it will only cost a very cheap expenditure, you won’t have any uncertainties. Moreover, it’s not only appetizing, it also has a great measure of calcium which makes it vigorous and you couldn’t even expect that it has a lot of nutrients within it.  With this very easy recipe, you won’t need to waste your precious kitchen work for this preparation. And with all the priorities you have, you need not to have an extra weigh down. Just make an abrupt yet delicious sandwich.

                The first thing you have to remember if you’re planning to make a mouth-watering tuna sandwich spread you have to put in order the following ingredients:  4 tablespoons of diced celery, 6 to 7 tablespoons of mayonnaise, 2 to 3 tablespoons of mustard, 1/2 medium-sized onion, 1 tablespoon of fresh parsley, 1/4 teaspoons of ground cayenne pepper, lettuce, butter, salt and pepper to add flavor and a loaf bread. Also, you may use utensils to make your tuna spread a much easier task, such as a can opener and a mixing bowl. Subsequent to that, open the canned tuna, then drain any sort of liquid substance inside may it be oil or water then put carefully into the mixing bowl. However, you have to inculcate that if you are using a chunk tuna it’s often seen as a dry texture. You may need to use an extra ingredient that has plenty of moisture, such as mayonnaise. Furthermore, you also have to avoid adding water just to moisten your tuna salad. If you prefer using oily tuna, don’t wash it; allow the oil to form part of the moisture in the loaf. After that, you need to chop the onions and parsley finely. At that time, add the celery, mayonnaise, mustard, onion, parsley and cayenne pepper to the mixing bowl and muddle up each one of the ingredients.

               Also, season the pepper and salt to taste. Before I finish, put the lettuce on one of the bread slices, then spread the tuna spread mixture evenly on top. Now, that you have your own tuna sandwich spread, this may be eaten alone or accompanied by hot chips or other favorite side. It’s up to you if you prefer your tuna sand which spread served chilled or even toasted bread.

            On the other hand, here are loads of ways that you can experiment and enmesh ingredients it is because there are never-ending opportunities to make your sandwiches different and matchless. Sandwiches specifically are more likely convenient, sweat-free dinners that may satisfy almost anyone. A sandwich is whatever you make of it. Although recipes are good guides,  your own tang preferences is also a significant lead.



Camille Tapec, Eden Bombeo, Alina Santos


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Around the world 100 Billion bank notes are produce every year and print many times. Over the total circulation of bank note and more than a trillion dollars and that is a thousand million dollars. But the travel of this money thus not last long. The life expectancy of a money is just over a year and worse than that many bank notes are very easy to purge.

So how can you create an almost in indestructible bank notes which not easy to purge? How do they do it? In Melbourne, Australia where money is dirty of the past faced. The twin challenges of the bank note where rapidly going out and increasingly sophisticated methods of perjury. The reserve bank of Australia has decided on a radical that way of tradition.

In 1988 they started to experiment bold new of bank notes. One is virtually indestructible a bank note which made a plastic and in such a success it’s catching all over the world from New Zealand to North Pole.

To make their plastic money, the Australian government use the small plastic called polymer. These tiny bits will be melted in a large machine and inside that a melted polymer plastics. As the two hundred fifty degrees (250) travels, a small jets of water will cool the polymer and now it’s ready for the stage of process.

The polymer will blow like a bubble which is the biggest bubble on earth.A five stories high and because its big you can’t look on it at once. As long as it is maintain in a pressure the walls of the bubble are always in the same thickness but it needs a constant monitoring.In total this bubble will stretch in twenty meters (20m) long.

Towards the bottom of the bubble, the polymer is gathered up in role and starts in resembled clearly an infrared Gage. and it will check the equal thickness of it the polymer sheets wrap in rolled, each roll is contains eight kilometers of sheets (8km) and weighs a Ton and half.

After they prepare the Polymer sheets now they are going to print, but how they can print that the ink will not rub off? The solution is a massive pressure of the sheets and print a white ink up to five times (5) to create an adhesive thick print for the bank note design .

It will look like a miss of it but every bank note has a small window in it. A light will check the window on it for security it’s because this is the most important characteristics of a bank note because this is the one of the security features.

And now the polymer can cut into sheets and it’s ready for the next stage the printing.A bank note design after printing the background of the worker fans it out to ensure that they don’t stick together. After that the next printing stage will print the bold and final details of the bill.

After the printing stage here comes the final security features of a Bank note and that is its very unique serial number. The counter will set the machine by hand.And now its ready to print in the machine. The machine can print two and half million (2 ½ m) notes in eight hours shift. Now the bank notes are ready to distribute nationwide by the central bank and the banks of the states.

In this modern era the other nation can use the Polymer Bills for them to lessen the cut trees and to use other resources that are existing it can also lessen the dirty circulation of money for the health of the people and its nation.

(Cell Jan Pasion)