Expository Writng

How to Make Candy Canes

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by: Evangelyn Caitom and Teresa Jane Tagayan

In the 17th century the German choir master had some sugar sticks bending to  shepherd cracks  as a special treat to its choir and that is how candy  cane is believe to be invented but it was until more than a century later that they earned their stripes. Today, candy canes come in all different color and sizes. Candy makers start by cooking at the big batch of sugar, water and corn syrup. Next, they prepare  on mix of starch and flavoring like pepper mint or strawberry, as they blend together the flavoring binds to the starch, the flavoring mixes empty into the middle of the syrupy slat then the whole thing is bend into a machine that bolds the bat  using shebbles  and  plunger, this distributed the flavoring evenly. Cold water is piped in the shebbles and neading table to cool the candy cane mix so it takes  on the steeper constituency that is necessary  for the next step. Now it’s over to the automated polars, this polars stretch the mixture around the metal  post, this action erates the candy turning it white, this batch will make 3200 candy canes but they are still a lot more work to be done. The candy is rolled into a fatlog while heater’s warm it until it’s pliable enough to shake. Next, strips of red colored candy are rolled out. A worker stretches and fold it to widest strips, two of the red strips are arranged on either side of the white candy, it weighs a hundred pounds so it takes too worker to transfer it to the next machine, it’s called Bat roller, and its cylinder rolled the candy thinner and thinner, dramatically reducing the diameter until it reaches candy cane dimensions, a torch move across the candy to keep it pliable then the sugar batch travels between wheels slammic  down  even  more. The robot candy moves forward in a way like fashion that gives it some slacks so it doesn’t stretch as its move through the next set of wheels.  The candy rope moves through two angle belts that twist it and a chain of knives cut it twisted ropes to candy cane size, this production has been perfectly choreograph one missed step and the job would hit his neural. There is a roll of cellophane on wings and the device wraps it around the candy sticks, a blast of hot air shrinks the cellophane on the ends of the canes, now it’s time for the candy sticks to get their signature cracks. A machine called cracker deck dense the ends, an over head bracket brush gently secure the canes because though they are pliable enough to bend they are still fragile, there is a camera inside this robotic arm which allows to spot the candy canes on the conveyer belt and pick them up to, at a time and It places card board packages by the dozen. It takes about half an hour to make a box of candy canes and they are sure to come to a very sticky end in even less time.

How Paper is Made

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By: Reychelle Alvero, Kristine Joy Alunan

What does tree trunks have to do with the most useful object?

All of us use paper every day. Yet, few realize all of the steps necessary to change plant material to this common, every day product. The fact that mankind ever stumbled upon this process is shear genius. But before that, let me tell you a short history about papers. Ancient Egyptians invented the first substance like the paper we know today called Papyrus. Papyrus scrolls were made by taking slices of the inner part of the papyrus stem, flattening then pounded into a hard, thin sheet. The Paper that we know today was invented by the Chinese in the second century, probably by a Chinese court official named Cai Lun. It is believed that he mixed hemp, mulberry bark, and rags with water, mashed it into a pulp, pressed out the liquid and hung it to dry in the sun. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was 500 years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A.D.

Paper making process follows eight steps. First is Logging, wood in industrial quantities is needed, with tree trunks and logs harvested and shorn of their branches. Second is Stripping, the trunks/logs are then sent through a stripping machine, which quickly and efficiently removes their bark. Chipping is the third step, the de-barked wood is then thrown into a chipping unit, which shreds them down into small strips. The fourth step is Pulping, the small strips are deposited into a large pressure boiler (digester), where they are mixed with large quantities of water. Next is De-mulching, the boiler produces paper pulp, which is one part fibre to 200 parts water. Most of the water is removed via a mesh screen loop. The sixth step is Drying, the remaining raw fibrous paper layer is then passed through numerous drying cylinders in order to solidify its structure. Next to that is Pressing, pen ultimately, the paper is fed through a pressing unit, which equalizes its surface texture and form. And the last step in making paper is Treating, the paper is treated with a starch solution that seals the paper’s surface and helps to avoid excessive ink absorption during the printing process.

Paper, whether produced in the modern factory or by the most careful, delicate hand methods, is made up of connected fibers. The fibers can come from a number of sources including cloth rags, cellulose fibers from plants, and, most notably, trees. The use of cloth in the process has always produced high-quality paper. Today, a large proportion of cotton and linen fibers in the mix create many excellent papers for special uses, from wedding invitation paper stock to special paper for pen and ink drawings.

Now that we are knowledgeable enough about our old friend paper, we shouldn’t waste a piece of it because the process of paper making is a very complicated thing, and to help conserve our dear Mother Nature.

How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy

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How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy
Modern consumer lifestyles are causing a tremendous worldwide waste problem. Having overfilled local landfill capacities, many first world nations are now exporting their waste to lesser develop countries. These actions have a disturbing impact on Mother Nature as well as the cultures throughout the globe.
With the rapid industrialization, the world has seen the development of many items like things that generate heat and electricity. Heat has often treated as a waste making an individual wonder if this massive heat being generated can be transmute into a source of electric power.

Waste-to-Energy (WtE) or Energy-from-Waste (EfW) is the process of generating electricity or heat power from the incineration of waste. It is a form of energy recovery and most of it produces electricity and heat through combustion.

In a Country Research Recovery Facility in New York, this power plant burn 30, 000 tons of garbage a day and lights up the whole city of Big Apple. Bulks of waste are being collected in different areas in New York.

In the facility, heaps of garbage is dump in a big drying chamber in order to become dehydrated since wet garbage can’t generate electricity. This drying compartment is like a nightmare vision of the future and sorting all the condemned garbage by a suitably horrifying machine called the claw. Two of these gargantuan 22 ton grabbers speed up the drying process by turning and airing trashes until its ready to burn. These giant airing cover holds up 17, 000 loads of waste are divided into three sections and each has a size of a basketball court.

Nevertheless, one section is taking new wet garbage and the other two will continue drying the waste for seven days then the conveyor belts will feed the three incinerators for waste destruction.

Three blazing inferno which reach up to 222 degrees Fahrenheit burn as much as 22, 000 pounds of dry garbage in an hour. While ash tumbles down through a series of rollers to an extraction system were any metal are being remove by magnets, the inferno heats up the 165 tons boiler like a giant tea kettle.

Extracted water runs through an immense maze of pipe works were heat from the furnace turns into 100 steams per hour. The high pressure steam is being pipe up to a colossal turbine room above the boiler. Nonetheless, each 235 megawatts turbine that generates power is design like a double-deck bus. The steam spins the turbines were convert their movement into electricity to light up the entire New York.

However, this kind of method is associated with one major problem. Pollutants will have the potential to enter in our atmosphere with the massive flue gases from the boiler. These noxious wastes are considered hazardous and in the 1980’s were reported to cause an environmental damage by turning rain into an acid rain. They stated that incinerators may emit fine particulate, heavy metals, trace dioxins, acid gas and the like.

Critics argue that incinerators may cause desolation on valuable resources and furthermore may reduce incentives for recycling. The question, nevertheless, is a wide matter as countries in Europe recycling the most (70%) also incinerate their residual waste to avoid land filling.

Hence, in order to diminish this predicament, modern industries created devices like fabric filters, reactors and catalysts to capture other regulated pollutants.

By passing the smoke through these devices, any acids that reside the smoke are neutralized and filtered which averts the acid from reaching the atmosphere and hurting the environment.

According to the New York Times, recent incineration plants are so clean that “many times more dioxin is now at released from home fireplaces and backyard barbecues than from incineration.” Also according to the German Environmental Ministry, “because of stringent regulations, waste incineration plants are no longer significant in terms of emission of dioxins, dust and heavy metals.”

– DELBERT JOHN S. JUBAN

An education : Why we should finish college

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College education today is a commodity. To grow exponentially, changing constantly and able to resist troubles to a higher plane of regard. ‘’Well the world simply no longer cares about what you know. What the world cares about, what is your competitive advantage and what you can do with what you know’’ according to a reply tweet to me by Dra. Clarita Carlos, a UP Professor. That is the importance of having college degree : the  preparation for the uncertain future,. Because good life is not widespread among those who have not received higher education.

But why should we go to college?

One important answer to this question is more opportunity. As opposed to generations of the past, high school graduates today are unable to obtain the number of high-paying jobs that were once available. The Philippines  has been transformed from a manufacturing-based economy to an economy based on knowledge, and the importance of a college education today can’t be compared to that of a high school education that were given to our lolo’s and lola’s in the fifty’s. It serves as the gateway to better options and more opportunity.

There are additional reasons as to why it is important to go to college, Tertiary education can help us to develop our emotional and psychological capabilities. In college, you will figure out that you are really a cry baby, or slightly out your sanity plainly or worse, you will turn out to be a schizophrenia behaving due the quizzes hurdled upon you. Kidding aside,  It is sometimes the pressure that we feel before making decisions that make or break us, especially here in MSU amidst of all the ambiguities and trials of the studentry, a MSUan will learn how to decide according not as to what he feels but he will decide according to the greater benefit, this pressured stimulation encourages college students to think, ask questions, and explore new ideas.

The importance of college education is also accentuated because of the opportunity to gain valuable resources during your tenure in college. The more connections which are collected during your college career, the more options you will have when you begin your job search. Once you have ended your job search and have started your career, however, the importance of a college education has not been exhausted. Having a college degree often provides for greater promotion opportunity.

So, why should you go to college? The reasoning does not begin and end with the job aspect. A good education is beneficial from many different viewpoints, To the extent that we are all educated and informed, we will be more equipped to deal with the gut issues that tend to divide us. College education is more than the sex, slumber parties, and the experience. It is the pleasure of accomplishment and  strong sense of pride and self that once in your life you accomplished something. Education isn’t just about finding a job. When one is educated one is more likely to be aware of his/her rights, and better able to make sure that those rights are respected. Education gives people choices– and the confidence to take advantage of those choices.

By: Jade Coritana

How It’s Made: Chocolate Coins

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by: Allibeth Domingo, Jonah Rose Dublas and Kirsten Rose Concon

Chocolate coins have been a symbolic treat in some parts of the world. It is one of the treats that are stuffed in a Christmas stocking during the feast of St. Nicolas. While for Jews, it is given to the Jewish children in celebration of the Hanukkah.

But have you ever wondered how it is made?

It all starts with 4 ½-kilogram bars of pure chocolate. The worker will then transfer these bars to a double boiler machine to melt it. The machine now has 2 ¾ tons of liquid chocolate that will be pumped through a long pipe with different cooling zones. The chocolate thickens through a process called tempering in which chocolate thickens but not to the extent that it will solidify. Tempering the chocolate breaks down the crystals in order to achieve the right taste and texture. After that, the thick chocolate will then be flowed under a broad blade through a conveyor. The blade spreads the chocolate more evenly and levels the thickness that will create a long sheet of chocolate. The chocolate starts to harden. To continue the process, it passes through a refrigeration tunnel in which it turns into a soft solid. Meanwhile, the long, tubular die which functions like a cookie cutter is prepared. As the die punches through the chocolate, the chocolate blanks accumulate on the tubes. The leftover is then brought to a bin. It will be brought back to the boiler machine to melt it so not a single chocolate will be put to waste.

The chocolate blanks are now ready to be printed. In order to do this, the chocolates will be wrapped with gold foil first. Next, the pattern is embossed on the chocolate and foil simultaneously. It is done by establishing even tensions on the sheets of gold foil through rollers. Then, the forked arm of the machine will move the chocolate blanks between the foil sheets. It wraps and cuts the chocolate blanks. Next, the forked arm transfers the chocolate blanks to a die press that impresses the design onto the chocolate blanks and foil. Though the chocolate hardens, it is still soft enough to receive the image. As for the leftover foils, it won’t be put to waste. Instead, it will be recycled. After the stamping of the design, it is brought to a bin through another conveyor. Finally, the chocolate coins end its journey by packing it in a traditional mesh bag.

Though the edible coins cannot be used for purchasing purposes, it can buy smiles from the kids and kids-at-heart which is the true jackpot. 

Burong Santol

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By Jordan Amadora, Jojie E. Campugan, Jayboy M. Sartorio

We, Filipinos have always had a taste for sour and tangy. We always love as the distinct taste of the delicacy bursts as it reaches at the tip of the tongue like “burong santol”. But why these kinds of wild mangosteen are tangier than the ordinary ones? Well, here is the answer with that question.

First, prepare the ingredients needed in making burong santol: santol or wild mangosteen, two cups of water and half cup of salt. Wash the wild mangosteen thoroughly in running tap water and then peel each wild mangosteen. After peeling, separate the seeds and flesh, and slice up the flesh into any size you want that you’ll feel comfortable with. In a jar, arrange the flesh you had just cut into pieces and you may or may not include the seeds depending on your desire.

Meanwhile, prepare the brine solution by boiling two cups of water and half cup of rock salt for five minutes, set it aside and let it cool. Pour the brine solution into the jar just enough that the wild mangosteen will be submerge with the brine solution, cover it loosely and let it ferment for few days. The salty taste of the brine solution will replace the liquid in the wild mangosteen flesh and seeds that make it tangier. After three days, tighten the cover and place the jar in the refrigerator. That’s it! Your burong santol is now ready to serve.

These are just easy steps; even an elementary student could follow the process. You wouldn’t have to spend your money on readymade burong santol sold commercially, instead you may spend it on another thing you needed most and you would not worry about the safety of the food you are eating.