expository essay

WHAT MADE OUR WALLS DURABLE:HOLLOW BLOCKS

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What Made Our Walls Durable: hollow blocks

A concrete block is primarily used as building material in the constructions of walls. It is also a new innovative technology in the building infrastructure. These concrete hollow blocks are a better substitute to work faster to build a structure with long lasting value. This will give a different look and to less your energy and making a eco friendly atmosphere in the building.
Concrete hollow blocks is a mixture of powdered Portland cement, water, sand and gravel. The production of concrete blocks consists of four basic processes. These are proportioning, mixing, compacting, curing, and drying.
Proportioning refers to the determination of suitable amounts of raw materials needed to produce concrete of desired quality under given conditions of mixing, placing and curing is known as proportioning. Mixing refers to the objective of thorough mixing of aggregates, cement and water is to ensure that the cement-water paste completely covers the surface of the aggregates. All the raw materials including water are collected in a concrete mixer, which is rotated for about 1 ½ minutes. The prepared mix is discharged from the mixer and consumed within 30 minutes. Compacting refers to the purpose of filling all air pockets with concrete as a whole without movement of free water through the concrete. Curing refers to the removing of the concrete from the mould and protected until they are sufficiently hardened to permit handling without damage. Drying refers to the dry out gradually of the blocks in shade so that the initial drying shrinkage of the blocks is completed before they are used in the construction work.
So, here are the step by step guides on how to make concrete hollow blocks.
First, to make a concrete blocks, you will need to set up concrete moulds to make your blocks in a particular shape. You will need water for a cement to form a hardened paste and it is also used to lubricate the aggregates to form a plastic and workable mass. Then use concrete mixer to mix clean sand with cement. Add crashed limestone or gravel to the mixer and slowly add water. Stir it. Pour the concrete into the mould carefully. Level the top with the trowel. Then remove it from the mould by pressing it down as you are pulling up on the mould. Generally a period of 7 to 15 days of drying will bring the blocks to the desired degree of dryness to complete their initial shrinkage. After this, the blocks are ready for use in construction work.
Using of concrete blocks provides facility for concealing electrical conduit, water and sewer pipes wherever so desired and requires less plastering. It is also durable, fire resistance and partial resistance to sound. It has an attractive appearance, and adaptable to any style of architecture.
Concrete blocks is a human technology that suites for our lifestyle in this advance world where everything is posible.

Demegillo,honey may
Nartatez,ivy
Kubon,omokolsom

How Paper is Made

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By: Reychelle Alvero, Kristine Joy Alunan

What does tree trunks have to do with the most useful object?

All of us use paper every day. Yet, few realize all of the steps necessary to change plant material to this common, every day product. The fact that mankind ever stumbled upon this process is shear genius. But before that, let me tell you a short history about papers. Ancient Egyptians invented the first substance like the paper we know today called Papyrus. Papyrus scrolls were made by taking slices of the inner part of the papyrus stem, flattening then pounded into a hard, thin sheet. The Paper that we know today was invented by the Chinese in the second century, probably by a Chinese court official named Cai Lun. It is believed that he mixed hemp, mulberry bark, and rags with water, mashed it into a pulp, pressed out the liquid and hung it to dry in the sun. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was 500 years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A.D.

Paper making process follows eight steps. First is Logging, wood in industrial quantities is needed, with tree trunks and logs harvested and shorn of their branches. Second is Stripping, the trunks/logs are then sent through a stripping machine, which quickly and efficiently removes their bark. Chipping is the third step, the de-barked wood is then thrown into a chipping unit, which shreds them down into small strips. The fourth step is Pulping, the small strips are deposited into a large pressure boiler (digester), where they are mixed with large quantities of water. Next is De-mulching, the boiler produces paper pulp, which is one part fibre to 200 parts water. Most of the water is removed via a mesh screen loop. The sixth step is Drying, the remaining raw fibrous paper layer is then passed through numerous drying cylinders in order to solidify its structure. Next to that is Pressing, pen ultimately, the paper is fed through a pressing unit, which equalizes its surface texture and form. And the last step in making paper is Treating, the paper is treated with a starch solution that seals the paper’s surface and helps to avoid excessive ink absorption during the printing process.

Paper, whether produced in the modern factory or by the most careful, delicate hand methods, is made up of connected fibers. The fibers can come from a number of sources including cloth rags, cellulose fibers from plants, and, most notably, trees. The use of cloth in the process has always produced high-quality paper. Today, a large proportion of cotton and linen fibers in the mix create many excellent papers for special uses, from wedding invitation paper stock to special paper for pen and ink drawings.

Now that we are knowledgeable enough about our old friend paper, we shouldn’t waste a piece of it because the process of paper making is a very complicated thing, and to help conserve our dear Mother Nature.

Man Made Marvels

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Man Made Marvels

They say it soon to be “World’s Biggest Dome and Largest Indoor Arena and Theater: The Philippine Arena”
They said that this project the Philippine Arena is an indoor arena being constructed and the location of this is at the Ciudad de Victoria, with a 75-hectare tourism enterprise zone in Bocaue and Santa Maria, Bulacan, Philippines and the seating capacity is up to 50,000 to 55,000 people and the world biggest dome so far has only 20,000 seating capacity but this is world breaking. It causes for almost 9.1Billion Pesos. This was owned by the Iglesia Ni Cristo and use as the centerpiece of the many events and centennial projects in upcoming July 27, 2014.
But the story about this that this is an Earth quake proof. The Philippine arena built on 99,200 square meters of it land and this will have a dome of 36,000 square meters. The roof will almost span for some 160 meters and 150 meters only smaller in diameter than they said in the newest Stadium with almost 310meters in Singapore, but the good thing of this it will contain 9,000 tons of steel which is come from Korea. It will be assembled at the site and will be erected up to its final position 62 meters in height, or about fifteen stories high according to them. The building will be safely founded on pile construction for earthquake loads.
Philippine Arena is record breaking manmade marvel for the use as a hall of the Iglesia Ni Cristo activities for the hundred anniversaries or the centennial anniversary of the church. The contractors of this is the New San Jose Builders were only given a 2years or 24 months to finish the arena, they say that the Philippine arena was one of the fastest construction compelled by them and it was very challenging in their part because of the timeline given by them. According to them the normal construction period is 30months but they only given 24months, this is the project that they really can’t move. But one also of the very challenging role of them is the resign and land escape of the dome.
Architect said that the building was so safe for the people to come in and moving out or even also watching the show because even the energy of the 50,000 people can be accommodated by the building. Every inch of the structure insuring the safety of the people not only through crowd management on a massive scale, they assure that there is, no panic, no stampedes, no bottle necks when there is fast exists because so many exists, concourse and stairs.
Lastly this is a man made marvel because even a such kind of intensity 8.0 level of earthquake the building will not be damage of even crack but the instance when there is earthquake the building will be move together with the land and the roof stays because there is a leading rubber bearing that serve as the controller under the building. It was really amazing and surprising for the people especially the Filipinos because Philippines will be known because of land mark that they are only had.

By: JOANNE FEMA SANTOS AB-POLSCI 2

How does Wi-Fi works?

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Datu Mohammad Dave K. Pantao

Many of us often wonder how how this masterpiece of technology really works. Most of people use WiFi as a prefered mode of internet connection all over the world because of the convenience it brings to us. You don’t need to have a wires and it is even much faster than broadband connections. Wireless technology has widely spread lately and you can get connected almost anywhere; at home, at work, in libraries, schools, airports, hotels and even in some restaurants. Wireless networking is known as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) or 802.11 networking.
To access this type of connection, one must have a wireless adapter on their computer. Wi-Fi provides wireless connectivity by emitting frequencies between 2.4GHz to 5GHz based on the amount of data on the network. Areas which are enabled with Wi-Fi connectivity are known as Hot Spots. One can use advanced softwares like Wirelessmon to detect and request connection to Hotspots. To start a Wireless connection, it is important that the wireless router is plugged into the internet connection and that all the required settings are properly installed.
A mobile device such as a laptop should have a wireless card or built-in adapter to be able to take advantage of using Wi-Fi. Newer laptops have built-in wireless cards; however, in older models you can use a wireless adapter to hook into a USB port or a wireless card that plugs into a PCI card slot. Desktop computers and printers that do not have wireless cards can also get USB wireless adapters to connect to the USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports. A desktop computer usually also has a PCI slot where a wireless card can plug in.
Like mobile phones, a Wi-Fi network makes use of radio waves to transmit information across a network. The computer should include a wireless adapter that will translate data sent into a radio signal. This same signal will be transmitted, via an antenna, to a decoder known as the router. Once decoded, the data will be sent to the Internet through a wired Ethernet connection. As the wireless network will work as a two-way traffic, the data received from the Internet will also pass through the router to be coded into a radio signal that will be receipted by the computer’s wireless adapter.
The typical range of a Wi-Fi network varies depending on the type of obstructions the radio signals encounter between connection endpoints. While 100 feet (30m) or more of range is typical, a Wi-Fi signal may fail to reach even half that distance if heavy obstructions exist on the radio signals’ path. Using special Wi-Fi range extender devices, an administrator can extend the reach of their network to overcome these obstructions and expand its range manyfold in other directions.
Wi-fi means a lot to us but it could also do harmful effects especially to the childrens whom are now on the trend. It would be easy to access restricted websites such as adultsite sites. Proper guidance of the parents and knowing the does and don’ts are in need upon using this technology.

Burong Santol

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By Jordan Amadora, Jojie E. Campugan, Jayboy M. Sartorio

We, Filipinos have always had a taste for sour and tangy. We always love as the distinct taste of the delicacy bursts as it reaches at the tip of the tongue like “burong santol”. But why these kinds of wild mangosteen are tangier than the ordinary ones? Well, here is the answer with that question.

First, prepare the ingredients needed in making burong santol: santol or wild mangosteen, two cups of water and half cup of salt. Wash the wild mangosteen thoroughly in running tap water and then peel each wild mangosteen. After peeling, separate the seeds and flesh, and slice up the flesh into any size you want that you’ll feel comfortable with. In a jar, arrange the flesh you had just cut into pieces and you may or may not include the seeds depending on your desire.

Meanwhile, prepare the brine solution by boiling two cups of water and half cup of rock salt for five minutes, set it aside and let it cool. Pour the brine solution into the jar just enough that the wild mangosteen will be submerge with the brine solution, cover it loosely and let it ferment for few days. The salty taste of the brine solution will replace the liquid in the wild mangosteen flesh and seeds that make it tangier. After three days, tighten the cover and place the jar in the refrigerator. That’s it! Your burong santol is now ready to serve.

These are just easy steps; even an elementary student could follow the process. You wouldn’t have to spend your money on readymade burong santol sold commercially, instead you may spend it on another thing you needed most and you would not worry about the safety of the food you are eating.