How to Make Candy Canes

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by: Evangelyn Caitom and Teresa Jane Tagayan

In the 17th century the German choir master had some sugar sticks bending to  shepherd cracks  as a special treat to its choir and that is how candy  cane is believe to be invented but it was until more than a century later that they earned their stripes. Today, candy canes come in all different color and sizes. Candy makers start by cooking at the big batch of sugar, water and corn syrup. Next, they prepare  on mix of starch and flavoring like pepper mint or strawberry, as they blend together the flavoring binds to the starch, the flavoring mixes empty into the middle of the syrupy slat then the whole thing is bend into a machine that bolds the bat  using shebbles  and  plunger, this distributed the flavoring evenly. Cold water is piped in the shebbles and neading table to cool the candy cane mix so it takes  on the steeper constituency that is necessary  for the next step. Now it’s over to the automated polars, this polars stretch the mixture around the metal  post, this action erates the candy turning it white, this batch will make 3200 candy canes but they are still a lot more work to be done. The candy is rolled into a fatlog while heater’s warm it until it’s pliable enough to shake. Next, strips of red colored candy are rolled out. A worker stretches and fold it to widest strips, two of the red strips are arranged on either side of the white candy, it weighs a hundred pounds so it takes too worker to transfer it to the next machine, it’s called Bat roller, and its cylinder rolled the candy thinner and thinner, dramatically reducing the diameter until it reaches candy cane dimensions, a torch move across the candy to keep it pliable then the sugar batch travels between wheels slammic  down  even  more. The robot candy moves forward in a way like fashion that gives it some slacks so it doesn’t stretch as its move through the next set of wheels.  The candy rope moves through two angle belts that twist it and a chain of knives cut it twisted ropes to candy cane size, this production has been perfectly choreograph one missed step and the job would hit his neural. There is a roll of cellophane on wings and the device wraps it around the candy sticks, a blast of hot air shrinks the cellophane on the ends of the canes, now it’s time for the candy sticks to get their signature cracks. A machine called cracker deck dense the ends, an over head bracket brush gently secure the canes because though they are pliable enough to bend they are still fragile, there is a camera inside this robotic arm which allows to spot the candy canes on the conveyer belt and pick them up to, at a time and It places card board packages by the dozen. It takes about half an hour to make a box of candy canes and they are sure to come to a very sticky end in even less time.



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What Made Our Walls Durable: hollow blocks

A concrete block is primarily used as building material in the constructions of walls. It is also a new innovative technology in the building infrastructure. These concrete hollow blocks are a better substitute to work faster to build a structure with long lasting value. This will give a different look and to less your energy and making a eco friendly atmosphere in the building.
Concrete hollow blocks is a mixture of powdered Portland cement, water, sand and gravel. The production of concrete blocks consists of four basic processes. These are proportioning, mixing, compacting, curing, and drying.
Proportioning refers to the determination of suitable amounts of raw materials needed to produce concrete of desired quality under given conditions of mixing, placing and curing is known as proportioning. Mixing refers to the objective of thorough mixing of aggregates, cement and water is to ensure that the cement-water paste completely covers the surface of the aggregates. All the raw materials including water are collected in a concrete mixer, which is rotated for about 1 ½ minutes. The prepared mix is discharged from the mixer and consumed within 30 minutes. Compacting refers to the purpose of filling all air pockets with concrete as a whole without movement of free water through the concrete. Curing refers to the removing of the concrete from the mould and protected until they are sufficiently hardened to permit handling without damage. Drying refers to the dry out gradually of the blocks in shade so that the initial drying shrinkage of the blocks is completed before they are used in the construction work.
So, here are the step by step guides on how to make concrete hollow blocks.
First, to make a concrete blocks, you will need to set up concrete moulds to make your blocks in a particular shape. You will need water for a cement to form a hardened paste and it is also used to lubricate the aggregates to form a plastic and workable mass. Then use concrete mixer to mix clean sand with cement. Add crashed limestone or gravel to the mixer and slowly add water. Stir it. Pour the concrete into the mould carefully. Level the top with the trowel. Then remove it from the mould by pressing it down as you are pulling up on the mould. Generally a period of 7 to 15 days of drying will bring the blocks to the desired degree of dryness to complete their initial shrinkage. After this, the blocks are ready for use in construction work.
Using of concrete blocks provides facility for concealing electrical conduit, water and sewer pipes wherever so desired and requires less plastering. It is also durable, fire resistance and partial resistance to sound. It has an attractive appearance, and adaptable to any style of architecture.
Concrete blocks is a human technology that suites for our lifestyle in this advance world where everything is posible.

Demegillo,honey may

How Paper is Made

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By: Reychelle Alvero, Kristine Joy Alunan

What does tree trunks have to do with the most useful object?

All of us use paper every day. Yet, few realize all of the steps necessary to change plant material to this common, every day product. The fact that mankind ever stumbled upon this process is shear genius. But before that, let me tell you a short history about papers. Ancient Egyptians invented the first substance like the paper we know today called Papyrus. Papyrus scrolls were made by taking slices of the inner part of the papyrus stem, flattening then pounded into a hard, thin sheet. The Paper that we know today was invented by the Chinese in the second century, probably by a Chinese court official named Cai Lun. It is believed that he mixed hemp, mulberry bark, and rags with water, mashed it into a pulp, pressed out the liquid and hung it to dry in the sun. Recognized almost immediately as a valuable secret, it was 500 years before the Japanese acquired knowledge of the method. Papermaking was known in the Islamic world from the end of the eighth century A.D.

Paper making process follows eight steps. First is Logging, wood in industrial quantities is needed, with tree trunks and logs harvested and shorn of their branches. Second is Stripping, the trunks/logs are then sent through a stripping machine, which quickly and efficiently removes their bark. Chipping is the third step, the de-barked wood is then thrown into a chipping unit, which shreds them down into small strips. The fourth step is Pulping, the small strips are deposited into a large pressure boiler (digester), where they are mixed with large quantities of water. Next is De-mulching, the boiler produces paper pulp, which is one part fibre to 200 parts water. Most of the water is removed via a mesh screen loop. The sixth step is Drying, the remaining raw fibrous paper layer is then passed through numerous drying cylinders in order to solidify its structure. Next to that is Pressing, pen ultimately, the paper is fed through a pressing unit, which equalizes its surface texture and form. And the last step in making paper is Treating, the paper is treated with a starch solution that seals the paper’s surface and helps to avoid excessive ink absorption during the printing process.

Paper, whether produced in the modern factory or by the most careful, delicate hand methods, is made up of connected fibers. The fibers can come from a number of sources including cloth rags, cellulose fibers from plants, and, most notably, trees. The use of cloth in the process has always produced high-quality paper. Today, a large proportion of cotton and linen fibers in the mix create many excellent papers for special uses, from wedding invitation paper stock to special paper for pen and ink drawings.

Now that we are knowledgeable enough about our old friend paper, we shouldn’t waste a piece of it because the process of paper making is a very complicated thing, and to help conserve our dear Mother Nature.

Man Made Marvels

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Man Made Marvels

They say it soon to be “World’s Biggest Dome and Largest Indoor Arena and Theater: The Philippine Arena”
They said that this project the Philippine Arena is an indoor arena being constructed and the location of this is at the Ciudad de Victoria, with a 75-hectare tourism enterprise zone in Bocaue and Santa Maria, Bulacan, Philippines and the seating capacity is up to 50,000 to 55,000 people and the world biggest dome so far has only 20,000 seating capacity but this is world breaking. It causes for almost 9.1Billion Pesos. This was owned by the Iglesia Ni Cristo and use as the centerpiece of the many events and centennial projects in upcoming July 27, 2014.
But the story about this that this is an Earth quake proof. The Philippine arena built on 99,200 square meters of it land and this will have a dome of 36,000 square meters. The roof will almost span for some 160 meters and 150 meters only smaller in diameter than they said in the newest Stadium with almost 310meters in Singapore, but the good thing of this it will contain 9,000 tons of steel which is come from Korea. It will be assembled at the site and will be erected up to its final position 62 meters in height, or about fifteen stories high according to them. The building will be safely founded on pile construction for earthquake loads.
Philippine Arena is record breaking manmade marvel for the use as a hall of the Iglesia Ni Cristo activities for the hundred anniversaries or the centennial anniversary of the church. The contractors of this is the New San Jose Builders were only given a 2years or 24 months to finish the arena, they say that the Philippine arena was one of the fastest construction compelled by them and it was very challenging in their part because of the timeline given by them. According to them the normal construction period is 30months but they only given 24months, this is the project that they really can’t move. But one also of the very challenging role of them is the resign and land escape of the dome.
Architect said that the building was so safe for the people to come in and moving out or even also watching the show because even the energy of the 50,000 people can be accommodated by the building. Every inch of the structure insuring the safety of the people not only through crowd management on a massive scale, they assure that there is, no panic, no stampedes, no bottle necks when there is fast exists because so many exists, concourse and stairs.
Lastly this is a man made marvel because even a such kind of intensity 8.0 level of earthquake the building will not be damage of even crack but the instance when there is earthquake the building will be move together with the land and the roof stays because there is a leading rubber bearing that serve as the controller under the building. It was really amazing and surprising for the people especially the Filipinos because Philippines will be known because of land mark that they are only had.


How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy

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How it is made: Turning Waste into Energy
Modern consumer lifestyles are causing a tremendous worldwide waste problem. Having overfilled local landfill capacities, many first world nations are now exporting their waste to lesser develop countries. These actions have a disturbing impact on Mother Nature as well as the cultures throughout the globe.
With the rapid industrialization, the world has seen the development of many items like things that generate heat and electricity. Heat has often treated as a waste making an individual wonder if this massive heat being generated can be transmute into a source of electric power.

Waste-to-Energy (WtE) or Energy-from-Waste (EfW) is the process of generating electricity or heat power from the incineration of waste. It is a form of energy recovery and most of it produces electricity and heat through combustion.

In a Country Research Recovery Facility in New York, this power plant burn 30, 000 tons of garbage a day and lights up the whole city of Big Apple. Bulks of waste are being collected in different areas in New York.

In the facility, heaps of garbage is dump in a big drying chamber in order to become dehydrated since wet garbage can’t generate electricity. This drying compartment is like a nightmare vision of the future and sorting all the condemned garbage by a suitably horrifying machine called the claw. Two of these gargantuan 22 ton grabbers speed up the drying process by turning and airing trashes until its ready to burn. These giant airing cover holds up 17, 000 loads of waste are divided into three sections and each has a size of a basketball court.

Nevertheless, one section is taking new wet garbage and the other two will continue drying the waste for seven days then the conveyor belts will feed the three incinerators for waste destruction.

Three blazing inferno which reach up to 222 degrees Fahrenheit burn as much as 22, 000 pounds of dry garbage in an hour. While ash tumbles down through a series of rollers to an extraction system were any metal are being remove by magnets, the inferno heats up the 165 tons boiler like a giant tea kettle.

Extracted water runs through an immense maze of pipe works were heat from the furnace turns into 100 steams per hour. The high pressure steam is being pipe up to a colossal turbine room above the boiler. Nonetheless, each 235 megawatts turbine that generates power is design like a double-deck bus. The steam spins the turbines were convert their movement into electricity to light up the entire New York.

However, this kind of method is associated with one major problem. Pollutants will have the potential to enter in our atmosphere with the massive flue gases from the boiler. These noxious wastes are considered hazardous and in the 1980’s were reported to cause an environmental damage by turning rain into an acid rain. They stated that incinerators may emit fine particulate, heavy metals, trace dioxins, acid gas and the like.

Critics argue that incinerators may cause desolation on valuable resources and furthermore may reduce incentives for recycling. The question, nevertheless, is a wide matter as countries in Europe recycling the most (70%) also incinerate their residual waste to avoid land filling.

Hence, in order to diminish this predicament, modern industries created devices like fabric filters, reactors and catalysts to capture other regulated pollutants.

By passing the smoke through these devices, any acids that reside the smoke are neutralized and filtered which averts the acid from reaching the atmosphere and hurting the environment.

According to the New York Times, recent incineration plants are so clean that “many times more dioxin is now at released from home fireplaces and backyard barbecues than from incineration.” Also according to the German Environmental Ministry, “because of stringent regulations, waste incineration plants are no longer significant in terms of emission of dioxins, dust and heavy metals.”


An education : Why we should finish college

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College education today is a commodity. To grow exponentially, changing constantly and able to resist troubles to a higher plane of regard. ‘’Well the world simply no longer cares about what you know. What the world cares about, what is your competitive advantage and what you can do with what you know’’ according to a reply tweet to me by Dra. Clarita Carlos, a UP Professor. That is the importance of having college degree : the  preparation for the uncertain future,. Because good life is not widespread among those who have not received higher education.

But why should we go to college?

One important answer to this question is more opportunity. As opposed to generations of the past, high school graduates today are unable to obtain the number of high-paying jobs that were once available. The Philippines  has been transformed from a manufacturing-based economy to an economy based on knowledge, and the importance of a college education today can’t be compared to that of a high school education that were given to our lolo’s and lola’s in the fifty’s. It serves as the gateway to better options and more opportunity.

There are additional reasons as to why it is important to go to college, Tertiary education can help us to develop our emotional and psychological capabilities. In college, you will figure out that you are really a cry baby, or slightly out your sanity plainly or worse, you will turn out to be a schizophrenia behaving due the quizzes hurdled upon you. Kidding aside,  It is sometimes the pressure that we feel before making decisions that make or break us, especially here in MSU amidst of all the ambiguities and trials of the studentry, a MSUan will learn how to decide according not as to what he feels but he will decide according to the greater benefit, this pressured stimulation encourages college students to think, ask questions, and explore new ideas.

The importance of college education is also accentuated because of the opportunity to gain valuable resources during your tenure in college. The more connections which are collected during your college career, the more options you will have when you begin your job search. Once you have ended your job search and have started your career, however, the importance of a college education has not been exhausted. Having a college degree often provides for greater promotion opportunity.

So, why should you go to college? The reasoning does not begin and end with the job aspect. A good education is beneficial from many different viewpoints, To the extent that we are all educated and informed, we will be more equipped to deal with the gut issues that tend to divide us. College education is more than the sex, slumber parties, and the experience. It is the pleasure of accomplishment and  strong sense of pride and self that once in your life you accomplished something. Education isn’t just about finding a job. When one is educated one is more likely to be aware of his/her rights, and better able to make sure that those rights are respected. Education gives people choices– and the confidence to take advantage of those choices.

By: Jade Coritana

How to let go and move on

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            Many of us experience misfortunes in life just like, failing in an examination; unable to get a job, can’t provide families needs even  those the basic one’s but the most heart breaking experience is when the person you love the most leaves you without explaining why.

            Numerous people who encounter this kind of experience failed to overcome the intense emotion that they feel so they began to lose their hopes and tend to ruin their lives completely. By starting not to attend in class, doing dirty and immoral things, taking alcoholic beverages and addictive drugs and to the extent that some of them try to end their lives. Because of these unavoidable events, experts came up with ideas that can lessen and overcome the depression one may feel. 

            Holding on is like believing that there is only past; letting go and moving on is knowing that there a is bright future ahead within your heart (Paulo Coelho). Thus it is important to know something when it already reached its end. It doesn’t matter what you called this kind of experience, what matters is to leave in the past those moments in the life that are over.

            First, one should accept the truth and be thankful be thankful of the experience that made you laugh, made you cry because this things helped you grow and accepting the things that you have and the possibilities that lies ahead. It is all about finding your inner strength and realizing that every experience has its value.

            Second, distance yourself for a while, sometimes you need to take a break and explore new things for a while in order to gain clarity on a situation. This will help you started and see things with new eyes, because returning from where you started is far different from leaving.

            Next, focus only on what can be changed, understanding that everything in life is not perfectly meant for each other. Focus on the things that you can do and don’t waste your energy on the things that you cannot be changed.

            Then, claim ownership and full control of your life, you are the one responsible in making who you wanted to be. Blamed everything that you wanted to like, your parents, educational system, the government and etc., but never blame yourself. If you want to move on and let go within your life, you are the only person who can make it happen.

            Followed by, focusing inward. It is good to create difference in this world and it is also good to help other person but you have to start within yourself. Review your potentials, lifestyle and the things that make you alive, and then nurture these things to make positive adjustments in your life.

            After that, you should change some people around you, some people are just there to strengthen you, and they are supposed to be in your memory not your destiny. Well now it’s already time to join local meet- ups, attend conference and other social activities. It was very important because it develops your happiness and potentials.

            In addition you have to take chance, it means that you have to accept the challenge that may come in to your life, there is reason for it; it is meant to test your courage and willingness to make change and take a chance for something new.

            Lastly, focus on today, life moves only in one direction- forward. Negative experience in the past will not predict your future. Figure out your next positive step no matter how small and difficult it is. Just keep on moving forward it’s the only thing you can do.

            Moving on is not an easy task to do, it is a process that deals with time, and self determination. Therefore for those people experiencing this kind of heart- breaking moments they should follow the steps presented above for the betterment of one’s self. Past is past, life should must be learn backward and must look forward. Let go of the things that made you cry and think of things that makes you smile. 

by: Tabingo, John Froy Mico Grey Pugaja and Carlito Vicente

New way of cooking Adobo

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By: Bandilla, Ivy Rose and Torrecampo, Rhea Mae

Filipinos are definitely food lover. They love to eat and taste food that will surely satisfy their appetite. They want to innovate, discover and create delicacies that will surely capture each heart. And Adobo is one of their signature dishes.

Here’s how to do it.

First and foremost, Filipinos are fund of discovering, eating and cooking as well that is why preparing adobo is actually common for them. So first, prepare all the ingredients needed (This is other way of cooking this dish). You may use either pork, chicken or a combination of it for doing this dish (cut into 1 ½ cubes for pork), 1 ½ tablespoon finely minced garlic, ½ to ¾ teaspoon ground black pepper, seasoning, soy sauce and vinegar and bay leaf.

Secondly, using a big pot, put the meat (pork or chicken), add vinegar and soy sauce as well as the bay leaf and add 2 cups of water and simmer for about 20 minutes or more add water if desired until the meat becomes tender and juicy.

Thirdly, after the meat is cooked, remove the sauce and set aside. Then, fry pork with the same pot used until it turns brown (if you’re not using pork, add some oil). When the pork turns brown, remove it from the pot (you may place it in a bowl together with its sauce).

Fourthly, with the same pot used, sauté garlic until it becomes brown (adding garlic towards the end part of cooking enhances its true flavor) after which, put the separated pork and sauce inside the pot and add seasoning according to your taste and simmer for about 3-5 minutes. (You may add boiled eggs or chicken liver while it simmers).

And lastly, serve it with hot rice.

Filipino’s passion for foods can be traced back from their former colonial masters which are the Spaniards. That is why even the names of some Filipino dishes are influenced by Spanish origin such as menudo, sisig, caldereta, etc. And that’s it! A new way of cooking Adobo, but its taste will always be marked as a Filipino.


How does Wi-Fi works?

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Datu Mohammad Dave K. Pantao

Many of us often wonder how how this masterpiece of technology really works. Most of people use WiFi as a prefered mode of internet connection all over the world because of the convenience it brings to us. You don’t need to have a wires and it is even much faster than broadband connections. Wireless technology has widely spread lately and you can get connected almost anywhere; at home, at work, in libraries, schools, airports, hotels and even in some restaurants. Wireless networking is known as Wi-Fi (Wireless Fidelity) or 802.11 networking.
To access this type of connection, one must have a wireless adapter on their computer. Wi-Fi provides wireless connectivity by emitting frequencies between 2.4GHz to 5GHz based on the amount of data on the network. Areas which are enabled with Wi-Fi connectivity are known as Hot Spots. One can use advanced softwares like Wirelessmon to detect and request connection to Hotspots. To start a Wireless connection, it is important that the wireless router is plugged into the internet connection and that all the required settings are properly installed.
A mobile device such as a laptop should have a wireless card or built-in adapter to be able to take advantage of using Wi-Fi. Newer laptops have built-in wireless cards; however, in older models you can use a wireless adapter to hook into a USB port or a wireless card that plugs into a PCI card slot. Desktop computers and printers that do not have wireless cards can also get USB wireless adapters to connect to the USB (Universal Serial Bus) ports. A desktop computer usually also has a PCI slot where a wireless card can plug in.
Like mobile phones, a Wi-Fi network makes use of radio waves to transmit information across a network. The computer should include a wireless adapter that will translate data sent into a radio signal. This same signal will be transmitted, via an antenna, to a decoder known as the router. Once decoded, the data will be sent to the Internet through a wired Ethernet connection. As the wireless network will work as a two-way traffic, the data received from the Internet will also pass through the router to be coded into a radio signal that will be receipted by the computer’s wireless adapter.
The typical range of a Wi-Fi network varies depending on the type of obstructions the radio signals encounter between connection endpoints. While 100 feet (30m) or more of range is typical, a Wi-Fi signal may fail to reach even half that distance if heavy obstructions exist on the radio signals’ path. Using special Wi-Fi range extender devices, an administrator can extend the reach of their network to overcome these obstructions and expand its range manyfold in other directions.
Wi-fi means a lot to us but it could also do harmful effects especially to the childrens whom are now on the trend. It would be easy to access restricted websites such as adultsite sites. Proper guidance of the parents and knowing the does and don’ts are in need upon using this technology.

How to make assorted chocolates

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               Ever since chocolate was discovered, people have had a craving for it. This desire led them to create more flavors that will further add savory taste to their favorite chocolate. And today’s luxury chocolate takes people’s addiction to a whole new level, especially among children. There were already many tasteful twists generated to manufacture class chocolates that quench the taste buds of the people. And high technology is needed in order to produce these appetizing sweets.

                To create butter cream chocolate, first, add marshmallow cream, lots of pure butter, sugar and syrup. Mix it with water, vanilla and special yeast enzyme that completes the recipe. This enzyme will enhance the creaminess. Tuck the butter cream between ridge rollers which shape the creamy columns. A wire slices them into bite size nuggets. Tap the butter creams to uniform height. Chocolates lose up through the slides of the conveyer to coat the bottom of the creams. Then it’s on to a cold surface to solidify. Next, the creams travel through two curtains of chocolates while being coated at the bottoms again.  Finally, a trip to a twenty four and a half foot long cooling tunnel hardens the chocolates. Then the worker uses his or her hand to add a garnish to the chocolate. And as you see those finish products, you cannot deny that you want to ingest those luscious treats.

                If you want to have another flavor of the chocolate, cherry chocolates for example, first, you just load the cherries or the other flavors into a revolving pen. Add sugar crystals and as the cherries roll around, they get an even coating. Along with the sugar, these cherries have been coated with a special enzyme that will turn the sugar to liquid over the next ten days for juicier cherry taste. The enzyme effect is why the cherries get an extra coating of chocolate. It creates a solid shell that contains the sugary liquid. Again, the worker uses his or her hand for the final touch of the chocolate. And they are ready for those cherry-picking shopaholics. You can do this procedure again with the other flavors that you want.

                In packaging the chocolates, each box of chocolate contains eighteen to twenty different varieties. Since the workers make three to four flavours a day, it can take up a week to produce one of the luxurious assortments.

                For sure, people would eat up greedily in no time. For the costumers, seeing chocolates are like feast in their eyes. Surely they don’t want to miss to endure one of the most luxurious desire, chocolates.



By Dianne Ysabel Deoso, Jemmarie Lanson and Princess Faith Lamsin